Types and Shadows — The Passover

Before there comes upon you
the burning anger of the LORD,
before there comes upon you
the day of the anger of the LORD.
Seek the LORD, all you humble of the land,
who do his just commands;
seek righteousness; seek humility;
perhaps you may be hidden
on the day of the anger of the LORD

[Zephaniah 2:2-3]

Today at twilight, the 14th of Nissan, Passover begins. Passover arguably is the most sacred of holy convocations among the people of Israel. The feast was established between the God and people of Israel to be observed throughout all generations and forevermore. It is the climatic moment of redemptive history when the Creator and King of the universe supernaturally broke out on the earth and entered the natural realm with awesome displays of power and supreme sovereignty.

The essence of Passover, however, is found not only in the power of God but also in His provision and grace. The heart of Passover is found in the blood of the lamb. Israel was covered (atonement) and redeemed by the blood of the spotless male Lamb — saved from the angel of death who would passover those who trusted God and obeyed His word.

Passover is that moment when the children of Israel were saved by God’s grace, through faith. By believing God’s Message and Messenger, Israel was delivered from the bondage of Pharaoh and from the power of the gods of Egypt. Having been baptized through the Red Sea, Israel emerged as a chosen race, a holy nation, and a people of God’s own possession.

The prophetic typology and spiritual realties of the Passover are immense and I have written a few posts on the subject here if you would like to dig deeper.


Today I would like to focus on the future fulfillment of Passover through the lenses of the end of the age and the age to come. The prophetic patterns of God are unmistakable. What’s been done will be done again. Every type and shadow of redemptive history will recapitulate and culminate in the last days. I do believe the Scriptures portray the glorious return of Christ and the final redemption of the righteous as a greater Second Exodus.

For example, the Scriptures portray a believing remnant God’s people who experience a greater Exodus in the last days, when the greater Moses — Jesus — will return to destroy the greater Pharaoh — Antichrist — and supernaturally deliver His people from the bondage of the Beast and from the angel of death — Abaddon?

Is it possible that the LORD will part the sea again or supernaturally provide for His people in the wilderness with manna from heaven and water from a rock? Is it possible that the LORD will supernaturally protect many of His people through the great tribulation — covering and sheltering them from the judgements that are coming upon the earth — just as Israel was sheltered and protected in the midst of Egypt while the LORD poured out the plagues?

Is it possible that King Jesus will lead His innumerable host from heaven and earth on a triumphant procession from Sinai to Zion?

Not only is it possible, it is Biblical. The Passover provides a prophetic glimpse into the supernatural events that will occur on a global scale at the end of the age before the Great Day of the LORD.


Then from the smoke came locusts on the earth, and they were given power like the power of scorpions of the earth. 4They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any green plant or any tree, but only those people who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads … They have as king over them the angel of the bottomless pit. His name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he is called Apollyon the Destroyer.

[Revelation 9:3-4, 11]
sketches: The Passover

God’s judgments during the great tribulation will parallel the plagues of Egypt, only on a global scale. While many faithful witnesses are destined to suffer persecution, captivity, and even death at the hands of the Beast, there will be a considerable remnant who is supernaturally protected from the Beast and preserved through the plagues of death coming upon the earth.

In the 4th Seal of Revelation, we are told that the angel of Death rides across a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by wild beasts of the earth” [Revelation 6:8]. This is otherwise known as the Destroying Angel — or the Destroyer — the evil entity that leaves a wake of destruction and desolation when unleashed upon mankind.

The Destroyer is the same angel unleashed upon Egypt on the night of the first Passover, and he soon will be unleashed again upon the whole earth. Only those covered by the blood of the Lamb will be spared.

For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians, and when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses to strike you.

[Exodus 12:23]

The Destroyer will come up out of the Abyss — or Hades — during the trumpet judgments and lead a supernatural demonic horde to plague the earth and eventually kill 1/3 of mankind [Rev. 9:13-19]. Notice in Revelation 9, however, at the blowing of the 5th & 6th Trumpets, only those who do not have the “seal of God on their foreheads” suffer torment and death from the Destroyer.

Those who are covered by the blood of the Lamb and sealed with the Holy Spirit will be supernaturally protected once again from the plagues and the Destroyer. [see also Ezekiel 9]


The woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, in which she is to be nourished for 1,260 days.

[Revelation 12:6]

After the LORD delivered Israel from Egypt through the Passover, He then led her on a wilderness journey in the desert and supernaturally nourished and protected her. Scripture tells us that this epic drama will unfold one again during the great tribulation, and I believe it will be witnessed on a global scale. As the devil launches an all-out assault against God’s people — Jew and Gentile alike — the LORD will intervene in a supernatural way to preserve a faithful remnant.

It is during this final wilderness journey that we can expect to see God reproduce many of the same miracles He worked during the Exodus. Manna from heaven. Water from the rock. Opening the earth. Even parting the sea.

But the woman was given the two wings of the great eagle so that she might fly from the serpent into the wilderness, to the place where she is to be nourished for a time, and times, and half a time. 15The serpent poured water like a river out of his mouth after the woman, to sweep her away with a flood. 16But the earth came to the help of the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed the river that the dragon had poured from his mouth17Then the dragon became furious with the woman and went off to make war on the rest of her offspring, on those who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus.

[Revelation 12:14-17]

The prophet Ezekiel tells us that there is yet another future wilderness journey that will eclipse even the Exodus from Egypt.

As I live, declares the Lord GOD, surely with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm and with wrath poured out I will be king over you34I will bring you out from the peoples and gather you out of the countries where you are scattered, with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm, and with wrath poured out. 35And I will bring you into the wilderness of the peoples, and there I will enter into judgment with you face to face36As I entered into judgment with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so I will enter into judgment with you, declares the Lord GOD.

[Ezekiel 20:33-36]


Your dead shall live; their bodies shall rise.
You who dwell in the dust, awake and sing for joy!
For your dew is a dew of light,
and the earth will give birth to the dead.

20Come, my people, enter your chambers,
and shut your doors behind you;
hide yourselves for a little while
until the fury has passed by
21For behold, the LORD is coming out from his place
to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity
and the earth will disclose the blood shed on it,
and will no more cover its slain.

[Isaiah 26:19-21]
The Passover Blood resembles the cross of Christ

The death of every firstborn in Egypt at the hand of the Destroyer was severe enough, but God’s decisive display of wrath against Pharaoh ultimately would drown the evil king and his army in the depths of the sea. When Israel emerged on the other side, her deliverance was complete, and the entire assembly shouted in victory and sang songs of deliverance to the LORD!

While God has used water in the past to carry out His judgments, His final return to earth will be in the form of an all-consuming fire. [see 2 Peter 3]

Just as Israel was saved and protected from God’s wrath against Egypt during Passover, so it will be on the Day of the LORD. Not only will believers receive their resurrected, immortal bodies at the end of the age when Christ returns to earth, but also God will direct His wrath exclusively on the ungodly and the wicked inhabitants of the earth.

Even the Bowl judgments in Revelation 16 — which culminate with the return of Jesus to earth — are reserved exclusively for the Beast, his kingdom, and those who have taken the mark of the Beast. The point is that God is quite capable of preserving His people through judgment and protecting us from His wrath while on the earth, just as He did through Passover and the Exodus.

The prophet Zephaniah says that the humble and righteous will be “hidden” from the wrath of the LORD on that great Day [Zephaniah 2:3], and Isaiah uses Passover language about God’s people entering their “chambers” and shutting their doors behind them until His fury has passed by.

But now thus says the LORD, he who created you, O Jacob, he who formed you, O Israel: “Fear not, for I have redeemed you; I have called you by name, you are mine. 2When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they shall not overwhelm you; when you walk through fire you shall not be burned, and the flame shall not consume you. 3For I am the LORD your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior. I give Egypt as your ransom, Cush and Seba in exchange for you. 4Because you are precious in my eyes, and honored, and I love you.

[Isaiah 42:1-4]


The blood shall be a sign for you, on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you to destroy you, when I strike the land of Egypt. This day shall be for you a memorial day, and you shall keep it as a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations, as a statute forever, you shall keep it as a feast. 

[Exodus 12:13-14]
Artist rendering of Millennial Temple

Every Gentile believer who places faith in the Messiah of Israel — Jesus Christ — immediately is grafted in to Israel and receives a new national identity. We are adopted into the family of the God of Israel, granted citizenship in the Kingdom of Israel, incorporated into of the commonwealth of Israel, and commissioned as servants of the King of Israel.

Israel always has represented the unified people in covenant with the One True God from all nations throughout all time. When a stranger and sojourner came in faith and joined himself to the God and people of Israel, he was recognized and treated as a native born. Many Egyptians joined the company of Israel during the Exodus, and many more Gentiles became participants in the kingdom by faith — Rahab, Ruth etc… — and submitted to the laws and customs of Israel.

All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. 48If a stranger shall sojourn with you and would keep the Passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised. Then he may come near and keep it; he shall be as a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat of it. 49There shall be one law for the native and for the stranger who sojourns among you.

[Exodus 12:47-49]

Since the Day of Pentecost, untold millions of Gentiles from the “nations” now believe in the God of Israel and His Messiah Jesus, which means that the church did not replace Israel but rather has been grafted into the true Israel of God. Unfortunately, the church has mostly abandoned her religious heritage and forgotten her Hebrew roots.

Furthermore, when Christ returns to establish the Kingdom of Israel on earth, we will most definitely follow the laws of Israel and celebrate the feasts of the LORD that He gave to Israel. We will observe Passover in the Millennial Kingdom of Israel [see Ezekiel 45:21], as the people of Israel, giving glory to the God of Israel, and praising the Lamb who was slain from the Lion of the Tribe of Judah — Israel’s King.

Each of us will belong to one of the 12 tribes of Israel and inherit the land allotted to our tribe. Every year we will called up to Jerusalem to worship during the appointed Feasts of the LORD. We will forever commemorate the Passover in the Kingdom in the same way we observe the Lord’s Supper — in remembrance of the Great God and Redeemer of Israel who is mighty to save to the uttermost.

As the sons and daughters of Israel, we will forever rejoice in the Lamb and observe Passover for all generations.

My question is then, why don’t we faithfully keep it now?

I would strongly encourage every believer in Jesus Christ to discover new ways to keep Passover in this age, especially considering we will be keeping it in the age to come!


Types and Shadows — The Two Days of Hosea

After two days he will revive us;
on the third day he will raise us up,
that we may live before him.

[Hosea 6:2]

The often neglected book of Hosea contains one of the most fascinating prophecies in all of Scripture about the timing of the return of Jesus Christ. As I have studied this passage, I have become ever more convinced that the LORD gave Hosea a prophetic key that plainly unlocks the general timeline between the first and second coming of Messiah.

Jesus commends those who stay awake and who are ready and watching for His return in hopeful expectation. Knowing that we are called to discern the signs of the times and recognize the nearness of the Lord’s return, Hosea’s prophecy becomes that much more interesting.

Let’s take a closer look.

I Will Return Again to My Place

I will return again to my place,
until they acknowledge their guilt and seek my face,
and in their distress earnestly seek me.

[Hosea 5:15]

Hosea spent his entire ministry warning Israel of her idolatry and spiritual adultery and at the same time calling her back to God. Israel repeatedly had been unfaithful the LORD by playing the whore with other gods and eventually would suffer exile for her apostasy. It is within this context that Hosea provides a fascinating prophecy.

Notice the LORD — speaking through Hosea — says that He will “return again to His place until they acknowledge their guilt and seek my face” [Hosea 5:15]. At this point in redemptive history [8th Century B.C.], the Lord Jesus had not yet come in the flesh, much less had a chance to return to His place.

Yet the LORD tells Israel that He will return again to His place (in heaven) and will not come back to restore the Kingdom until the believing remnant of national/ethnic Israel experiences true repentance and calls in faith upon the name of the Lord. Obviously the LORD can’t return again to heaven unless He first descends from heaven to earth, which is at the heart of the gospel message. The Word became flesh.

If I have told you earthly things and you do not believe, how can you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 13No one has ascended into heaven except he who descended from heaven, the Son of Man … that whoever believes in him may have eternal life.

[John 3:12-13,15]

In the fullness of time, the Creator entered His own Creation. God so loved the world that He sent forth His Only Son, born of a woman, to redeem mankind through His death, burial, resurrection, and ascension to the right hand of the Father on high. Jesus echoes Hosea’s language in the gospels.

The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised.

[Luke 9:22]

“Let not your hearts be troubled. Believe in God; believe also in me. 2In my Father’s house are many rooms. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? 3And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also. 4And you know the way to where I am going.”

[John 14:1-3]

What Hosea prophesied looking forward to Jesus, we now see by looking back through the cross, resurrection, and ascension of Christ. Jesus came and returned to His place again by ascending to the highest position of authority in the universe.

So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God.

[Mark 16:19]

And when he [Jesus] had said these things, as they were looking on, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight10And while they were gazing into heaven as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white robes,11and said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into heaven? This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven.

[Acts 1:9-11]

Since the Lord has already returned to His place by ascending to heaven, we are awaiting the Day when Jesus will rise up and leave His place in heaven to come tread the earth in judgment.

Hear, you peoples, all of you;
pay attention, O earth, and all that is in it,
and let the Lord GOD be a witness against you,
the Lord from his holy temple.
3For behold, the LORD is coming out of his place,
and will come down and tread upon the high places of the earth
4And the mountains will melt under him,
and the valleys will split open,
like wax before the fire,
like waters poured down a steep place.
5All this is for the transgression of Jacob
and for the sins of the house of Israel
What is the transgression of Jacob?
Is it not Samaria?
And what is the high place of Judah?
Is it not Jerusalem?

[Micah 1:2-5]

After Two Days He Will Raise Us Up

To understand the context of the passage, it is necessary to circle back to Hosea’s prophecy.

Come, let us return to the LORD;
for he has torn us, that he may heal us;
he has struck us down, and he will bind us up.
2After two days he will revive us;
on the third day he will raise us up,
that we may live before him
3Let us know; let us press on to know the LORD;
his going out is sure as the dawn;
he will come to us as the showers,
as the spring rains that water the earth

[Hosea 6:1-3]

Hosea prophesied that after “two days” both the house of Israel and Judah would return to the LORD in repentance and faith during a time of great affliction. God promises to “revive” them after two days and on the “third day” to raise them up so that they may forever live before Him.

As I have already pointed out, this prophecy applies both to the first and second comings of Christ. Remember, after coming the fist time Messiah returned again to his place — which is the Ascension of Christ — and then after two days Messiah will return and resurrect His people.

The Apostle Paul echoes Hosea and connects his prophecy to the first coming of the Lord.

For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures4that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, 

[1 Corinthians 15:3-4]

So how are we to understand Hosea’s prophecy concerning the 2nd Coming of the Lord?

First, we must recognize that God has revealed to us the prophetic pattern of redemptive history in the original 7-Day creation week in Genesis 1. Each of the six days of creation coincide with an epoch of 1,000 years of redemptive history, which means that the Biblical and historical timeline of human history falls within a literal 6,000 year period. The 7th Day Sabbath established by God also represents the prophetic Day of the LORD, when Christ returns to rule His kingdom for 1,000 years, which is equivalent to one day of rest. I have written extensively on this topic, so to discover more read the following blog — The Day of the LORD.

I believe the chart below helps provides a helpful visual of how one day with the LORD is like a thousand years, and a thousand years is like one day.

So just to clarify, here is the pattern of the prophetic day as represented by 1,000 years.

  • From Adam to Abraham there were approximately 2,000 years = 2 Days.
  • From Abraham to the First coming of Jesus there were another 2,000 years = 2 Days.
  • From the Ascension of Jesus to His Return to Earth there is another 2,000 years = 2 Days.
  • The Day of the LORD is the final 7th Day of Rest = 1,000 year Millennial Kingdom.

So if I am interpreting Hosea’s prophecy accurately, the Lord Jesus will return 2,000 years — or 2 Days — after His first coming and ascension to heaven. Consequently, that means that if Jesus was crucified, resurrected and ascended to heaven approximately 30-35 A.D. — depending on which scholar you ask — then we should be able to calculate His return to be about 2,000 years later, which means that we could expect Jesus to return somewhere around 2030-2035 A.D.

Notice also that Hosea places the timing of the resurrection of the dead to take place after two days = 2,000 years = from Messiah’s first coming. The Scriptures all agree that the resurrection of the righteous occurs when Jesus Christ returns from heaven to earth in power and great glory to gather His people to Himself. [see Daniel 12:1-3, 1 Thessalonians 4:13-17, Matthew 13:36-43, Matthew 24:27-31, John 11:17-27, 1 Corinthians 15:20-28, Revelation 14:14-20]

For this is the will of my Father, that everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him should have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.

[John 6:40]

I am fully aware that many may struggle with the possibility of associating any kind of date with the return of Jesus because of the unfortunate doctrine of “imminency,” which teaches that Jesus could return at any moment and that it is impossible to know when His coming will be.

What many people don’t know is that this is not a Biblical concept. Quite to the contrary, Jesus and the prophets consistently challenge believers to discern the signs and be prepared and ready for His coming. Hence Jesus says, “when you see all these things, you know that he is near, at the very gates” [Matthew 24:33].

In Their Distress They Will Seek Me

I will return again to my place,
until they acknowledge their guilt and seek my face,
and in their distress earnestly seek me.

[Hosea 5:15]

The final compelling component to Hosea’s prophecy is found in his reference to the great tribulation — also known as Jacob’s trouble. Notice the condition Hosea provides for the Lord’s return. The Lord is waiting for the national repentance of both Israel and Judah when they confess their sin of unbelief and acknowledge that Jesus Christ is both Savior and Lord.

The Bible contains dozens of prophecies about a believing remnant of Israel turning to the Lord Jesus Christ after going through the fires of the great tribulation. Hosea just so happens to use the very same word for tribulation that is used throughout the Old Testament to describe the final time of Jacob’s trouble at the end of the age. It is the Hebrew word tsar — צַר — which means narrow, a tight place, adversary, affliction, anguish, close, distress, enemy, flint, foe, sorrow, strait, tribulation, trouble.

Here is just a sampling of passages describing this unprecedented time of distress.

Alas! That day is so great
there is none like it;

it is a time of distress for Jacob;
yet he shall be saved out of it.

[Jeremiah 30:7]

And I will show wonders in the heavens and on the earth, blood and fire and columns of smoke. 31The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the great and dreadful day of the LORD comes32And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be those who escape, as the LORD has said, and among the survivors shall be those whom the LORD calls.

[Joel 2:30-32]

At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people. And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never has been since there was a nation till that time. But at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone whose name shall be found written in the book. 2And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.

[Daniel 12:1-2]

Jesus also affirms that He will not return until Israel acknowledges her guilt and calls upon the name of the Lord in faith.

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you were not willing! 38See, your house is left to you desolate.39For I tell you, you will not see me again, until you say, “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.”

[Mt. 23:37-39]

The prophet Zechariah and the Apostle Paul add some important finishing touches to this prophecy.

And on that day I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem. 10“And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on me, on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.

[Zechariah 12:9-10]

Lest you be wise in your own sight, I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers: a partial hardening has come upon Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. 26And in this way all Israel will be saved, as it is written,

“The Deliverer will come from Zion,
he will banish ungodliness from Jacob”;
27“and this will be my covenant with them
when I take away their sins.”

[Romans 11:25-27]

If Hosea’s fascinating “Two-Day” prophecy is correct, then we are fast approaching this unprecedented time of great tribulation that will lead to the end of this present age — or the completion of 6,000 years. If that is true, then the Day of the Lord Jesus Christ is critically close, and His coming Kingdom of 1,000 years is drawing near — even at the very gates!

Even so, come quickly Lord Jesus!

Types and Shadows — The Feast of Purim

The Feast of Purim - Convictions of Honor

And Mordecai recorded these things and sent letters to all the Jews who were in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, both near and far, 21obliging them to keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar and also the fifteenth day of the same, year by year, 22as the days on which the Jews got relief from their enemies, and as the month that had been turned for them from sorrow into gladness and from mourning into a holiday; that they should make them days of feasting and gladness, days for sending gifts of food to one another and gifts to the poor.

[Esther 9:20-22]

At sundown tonight, Jews all around the world will begin celebrating the Feast of Purim — also known as the Festival of Lots. Purim is a joyous two-day feast dedicated to remember God’s great deliverance of the Jewish people under the courageous leadership of Queen Esther and Mordecai.

The Biblical story of Esther is one of the most beautiful and dramatic narratives in all of Scripture. I strongly encourage believers to take the time to gather with friends and family and read the book of Esther out loud in commemoration of this appointed feast.

I have written extensively about the appointed feasts of the LORD, especially in regard to their prophetic fulfillment in the two advents of the Lord Jesus Christ. If you would like to learn more about the significance of these feasts and their prophetic implications, I encourage to read the following post — Feasts of the LORD .

As I recall the book of Esther, I am reminded of the many profound nuances and prophetic foreshadowings contained in the story and certainly won’t attempt to write exhaustively about them, yet I do believe there is an element of the story of Esther and the Feast of Purim that is worth our time and consideration.

I am speaking about the thin line that often exists between despair and deliverance. I am speaking about hope, and I believe the story of Esther serves as a powerful example of a greater reality for all of God’s people.

There are Dark Days Ahead

Letters were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces with instruction to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate all Jews, young and old, women and children, in one day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, and to plunder their goods.

[Esther 3:13]

The Jewish people are all too familiar with suffering at the hands of their enemies. Haman’s evil plot to annihilate the Jews was not the first nor would it be the last. Haman, of course, was one of the many historical prefigurements of antichrist — Haman — Profile of Antichrist — who hated God’s offspring.

From Pharaoh to Jezebel to Nebuchadnezzar to Antiochus Epiphanes and Caesar, many antichrists have attempted to utterly destroy God’s people. Hitler and Stalin almost succeeded, while today the biggest threat comes from the terroristic, Islamic regimes in the Middle East.

After all the suffering and persecution both Jews and Christians have endured historically, it is almost impossible to imagine that the worst is yet to come. The Bible speaks of a coming time of great tribulation that has never been before nor will ever be equalled again. This is the final time of Jacob’s trouble and yet it will be universal in scope. [reference Jeremiah 30, Daniel 12, Matthew 24]

You mean worse than the Holocaust … Yes.

You mean worse than the slaughter of tens of millions under communism … Yes.

Just as Haman was bloodthirsty for the Jews and hellbent on destroying them all, the coming man of lawlessness — the Antichrist — soon will be revealed and will come with the most diabolical plan to systematically annihilate all of God’s people.

For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be. 22And if those days had not been cut short, no human being would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short. 

[Matthew 24:21-22]

And the beast was given a mouth uttering haughty and blasphemous words, and it was allowed to exercise authority for forty-two months. 6It opened its mouth to utter blasphemies against God, blaspheming his name and his dwelling, that is, those who dwell in heaven. 7Also it was allowed to make war on the saints and to conquer them. And authority was given it over every tribe and people and language and nation

[Revelation 13:5-7]

When There is No Other Way

Now in the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same, when the king’s command and edict were about to be carried out, on the very day when the enemies of the Jews hoped to gain the mastery over them, the reverse occurred: the Jews gained mastery over those who hated them.

[Esther 9:1]

This verse may be the most profound in all of Esther. We are reminded just how close the Jews were from being destroyed by Haman. They had known their fate for a year. They had been praying and preparing for this day. It seemed like all hope was lost. There was no one to save them from the hand of their enemies. Certain death was inevitable.

And yet on the very day that the Jews were supposed to be annihilated, the reverse occurred. God stepped in and delivered His people from destruction. This isn’t the first time we have seen this pattern of God’s deliverance at the last minute.

When the children of Israel were fleeing from Pharaoh and his army, they were trapped at the Red Sea. As the wicked king was barreling down on them for the slaughter, God parted the sea at the last moment and made a way where there was no way. Turning the tides, God drowned Pharaoh and delivered Israel [Exodus 14].

As Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego refused to bow down to the image of Nebuchadnezzar, they were thrown into the midst of the fiery furnace [Daniel 3], and yet the LORD walked with them through the fire and delivered them against all odds.

So will it be during the great tribulation at the end of the age. When the devil seems to have prevailed and the Beast has conquered the world, it is precisely at that moment that God will deliver His people once and for all!

Our Blessed Hope

They will fall by the edge of the sword and be led captive among all nations, and Jerusalem will be trampled underfoot by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.25And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and on the earth distress of nations in perplexity because of the roaring of the sea and the waves, 26people fainting with fear and with foreboding of what is coming on the world. For the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 27And then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. 28Now when these things begin to take place, straighten up and raise your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.

[Luke 21:24-28]

Just as God delivered His people and destroyed His enemies at the very last minute in Esther’s day, so Jesus will return in power and glory at a time when all other hope is lost. That is why only Jesus is our Blessed Hope and that is why we are waiting for His appearing at the end of this age to wage war against the wicked and deliver us from evil.

The Day of the LORD is the unique Day when Christ comes down from heaven to save us once and for all. It is day all of God’s people will finally find relief, just as the Jews found relief in the days of Ester. The Apostle Paul certainly had the story of Esther in mind when he wrote to the church in Thessalonica.

This is evidence of the righteous judgment of God, that you may be considered worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you are also suffering— 6since indeed God considers it just to repay with affliction those who afflict you, 7and to grant relief to you who are afflicted as well as to us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels 8in flaming fire, inflicting vengeance on those who do not know God and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. 9They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might,10when he comes on that day to be glorified in his saints, and to be marveled at among all who have believed, because our testimony to you was believed.

[2 Thessalonians 1:5-10]

Sorrow to Joy

The Feast of Purim is a dedicated time of rejoicing to remember “the days on which the Jews got relief from their enemies, and as the month that had been turned for them from sorrow into gladness and from mourning into a holiday; that they should make them days of feasting and gladness days for sending gifts of food to one another and gifts to the poor.” [Esther 9:22].

In the same way, all of God’s people who overcome in Christ will enjoy that great banquet feast and wedding supper of the Lamb in the Kingdom of God when Jesus returns to take His rightful place on the throne as King of kings! It is the Day when the poor in spirit receive the Kingdom of heaven and will rejoice in the presence of God forevermore!

The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me,
because the LORD has anointed me
to bring good news to the poor;
he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted,
to proclaim liberty to the captives,
and the opening of the prison to those who are bound;
2to proclaim the year of the LORD’s favor,
and the day of vengeance of our God;
to comfort all who mourn;
3to grant to those who mourn in Zion—
to give them a beautiful headdress instead of ashes,
the oil of gladness instead of mourning,
the garment of praise instead of a faint spirit;
that they may be called oaks of righteousness,
the planting of the LORD, that he may be glorified
.” [Isaiah 61:1-3]

Types and Shadows — The Long Day of Joshua

At that time Joshua spoke to the LORD in the day when the LORD gave the Amorites over to the sons of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel,

“Sun, stand still at Gibeon,
and moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.”

13And the sun stood still, and the moon stopped,
until the nation took vengeance on their enemies. Is this not written in the Book of Jashar? The sun stopped in the midst of heaven and did not hurry to set for about a whole day. 14There has been no day like it before or since, when the LORD heeded the voice of a man, for the LORD fought for Israel.

Joshua 10:12-14

When it comes to typology, the character of Joshua emerges as one of the most pronounced figures of the Messiah in all of Scripture. Not only does Joshua share the very same Hebrew name as the Lord Jesus (Yeshua), but he is the commander of the armies of Israel who is commissioned by God to conquer His enemies and lead His people into the land of promise.

Joshua deserves several separate posts in and of himself, but today I want to focus on just one of his exploits that directly provides one of the clearest foreshadowings of the day of the LORD and the return of Jesus Christ.

I am speaking of the day the sun stood still — Joshua’s long day.

An Evil Alliance of Kings

Then the five kings of the Amorites, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon, gathered their forces and went up with all their armies and encamped against Gibeon and made war against it.

Joshua 10:5

Upon entering the Promise Land, Joshua and the Israelites had been tricked into making a covenant with the Gibeonites, which placed them on terms of peace. It wasn’t long before the wicked kings of the Amorites made an alliance and declared war against Gibeon, forcing Joshua to honor his commitment and to come deliver Gibeon out of their hands.

I find it fascinating that the leader of this evil alliance was Adoni-zedek — King of Jerusalem. When we consider that the final end-times Beast also will form a Middle-Eastern alliance of 10 kings and lead a brutal campaign against Jews and Christians (Revelation 13:1-10, 17:12-14), the typology cannot be denied. Furthermore, the final Antichrist will invade Jerusalem and will set up his throne in the Temple, declaring himself to be God (2 Thessalonians 2:1-12, Matthew 24:15). In this final act of defiance, the Beast will claim to be the king of Jerusalem.

Joshua’S Surprise Attack

So Joshua went up from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valor. 8And the LORD said to Joshua, “Do not fear them, for I have given them into your hands. Not a man of them shall stand before you.” 9So Joshua came upon them suddenly, having marched up all night from Gilgal.

Joshua 10:7-9

The next distinct similarity is found in Joshua’s surprise attack. By marching all night up into the mountains, the army of Israel caught the Amorites off guard, as they weren’t expecting such a sudden response. You could say that Joshua slipped up on the Amorite kings like a thief in the night. The element of surprise, of course, is one of the primary characteristics of the Day of the LORD.

Therefore, stay awake, for you do not know on what day your Lord is coming. 43But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what part of the night the thief was coming, he would have stayed awake and would not have let his house be broken into. 44Therefore you also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.

Matthew 24:42-44

Unfortunately, many have misinterpreted the “sudden” coming of Jesus like a thief in the night to mean that no one can know when the return of the LORD is near. Nothing could be further from the truth!

The Scriptures are clear that the sudden destruction of the Lord’s return will come upon the ungodly and wicked, who remain blinded in spiritual darkness. Those who belong to Christ, however, are children of light and will not be surprised at His coming but rather will be fully aware of the signs preceding His return (see Matthew 24:32-35).

For you yourselves are fully aware that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night. 3While people are saying, “There is peace and security,” then sudden destruction will come upon them as labor pains come upon a pregnant woman, and they will not escape. 4But you are not in darkness, brothers, for that day to surprise you like a thief. 5For you are all children of light, children of the day. We are not of the night or of the darkness.

1 Thessaloninas 5:2-5

The Signs in the Sun and the Moon

And the sun stood still, and the moon stopped, until the nation took vengeance on their enemies. Is this not written in the Book of Jashar? The sun stopped in the midst of heaven and did not hurry to set for about a whole day14There has been no day like it before or since, when the LORD heeded the voice of a man, for the LORD fought for Israel.

Joshua 10:13-14

One of the most distinct signs of the Day of the LORD and the return of Jesus will involve celestial anomalies in the sun and moon. There is no mistake that exceptional cosmic activity accompanied Joshua’s campaign against the Amorites. This has become known as the long day of Joshua. The extra daylight distinctly allowed Israel to route its enemies, making a full end of their armies.

For a fascinating theory on the celestial mechanics of Joshua’s long day, I highly recommend Chuck Missler’s presentation. You can access his teaching here.

And I will show wonders in the heavens and on the earth, blood and fire and columns of smoke. 31The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the great and awesome day of the LORD comes. 

Joel 2:30-31

Behold, the day of the LORD comes, cruel, with wrath and fierce anger, to make the land a desolation and to destroy its sinners from it. 10For the stars of the heavens and their constellations will not give their light; the sun will be dark at its rising, and the moon will not shed its light.

Isaiah 13:9-10

When he opened the sixth seal, I looked, and behold, there was a great earthquake, and the sun became black as sackcloth, the full moon became like blood,

Revelation 6:12

The Outpouring of God’s Wrath

And the LORD threw them into a panic before Israel, who struck them with a great blow at Gibeon and chased them by the way of the ascent of Beth-horon and struck them as far as Azekah and Makkedah. 11And as they fled before Israel, while they were going down the ascent of Beth-horon, the LORD threw down large stones from heaven on them as far as Azekah, and they died. There were more who died because of the hailstones than the sons of Israel killed with the sword.

Joshua 10:10-11

Once again, many fail to understand what God’s word means when it says that His people are not destined to suffer His wrath. In no form, shape, or fashion will believers in Christ Jesus experience the wrath of God, but that does not mean that God’s people must be removed from the earth during God’s judgments. This episode of Joshua’s long day is a perfect example.

Joshua and the army of Israel attacked the kings of the Amorites in battle, but it was the LORD Himself who did the most damage by directly casting large hailstones upon the enemy armies, while at the same time protecting Israel from His wrath. God is quite capable of directly targeting the wicked and ungodly in wrath, while at the same time removing, sheltering, and preserving His own.

How else can one explain the precision of these massive hail stones that were cast from heaven on Israel’s enemies? Surely both armies were fighting hand-to-hand and in close proximity to each other, and yet only the Amorites were crushed by the stones.

Severe hail is another primary sign of the coming Day of the LORD, and just like the long-day of Joshua, the LORD will shelter His people from His wrath while directly targeting the Beast and his armies.

But on that day, the day that Gog shall come against the land of Israel, declares the Lord GOD, my wrath will be roused in my anger19For in my jealousy and in my blazing wrath I declare, On that day there shall be a great earthquake in the land of Israel. The fish of the sea and the birds of the heavens and the beasts of the field and all creeping things that creep on the ground, and all the people who are on the face of the earth, shall quake at my presence. And the mountains shall be thrown down, and the cliffs shall fall, and every wall shall tumble to the ground. 21I will summon a sword against Gog on all my mountains, declares the Lord GOD. Every man’s sword will be against his brother. 22With pestilence and bloodshed I will enter into judgment with him, and I will rain upon him and his hordes and the many peoples who are with him torrential rains and hailstones, fire and sulfur. 23So I will show my greatness and my holiness and make myself known in the eyes of many nations. Then they will know that I am the LORD.

Ezekiel 38:18-23

The seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air, and a loud voice came out of the temple, from the throne, saying, “It is done!” 18And there were flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, and a great earthquake such as there had never been since man was on the earth, so great was that earthquake. 19The great city was split into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell, and God remembered Babylon the great, to make her drain the cup of the wine of the fury of his wrath. 20And every island fled away, and no mountains were to be found. 21And great hailstones, about one hundred pounds each, fell from heaven on people; and they cursed God for the plague of the hail, because the plague was so severe.

Revelation 16:17-21

Hide us from the Wrath of the Lamb

“These five kings fled and hid themselves in the cave at Makkedah. 17And it was told to Joshua, “The five kings have been found, hidden in the cave at Makkedah … And when they brought those kings out to Joshua, Joshua summoned all the men of Israel and said to the chiefs of the men of war who had gone with him, Come near; put your feet on the necks of these kings.” Then they came near and put their feet on their necks. 25And Joshua said to them, “Do not be afraid or dismayed; be strong and courageous. For thus the LORD will do to all your enemies against whom you fight.”

[Joshua 10:16-17, 24-25]

Finally, we see the fate of these evil Amorite kings once confronted with the wrath of God Almighty. Not only did they hide themselves in the caves to try and escape the wrath of God, but by placing his feet on their necks, Joshua was symbolically putting the seed war on display.

As we know, the very first prophetic passage in Scripture is Genesis 3:15, where the LORD promises a coming Savior who ultimately will crush the head of the Serpent and tread His enemies under the winepress of His wrath.

We see this identical language once again in the Revelation of Jesus Christ.

Then the kings of the earth and the great ones and the generals and the rich and the powerful, and everyone, slave and free, hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains, 16calling to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of him who is seated on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb, 17for the great day of their wrath has come, and who can stand?

[Revelation 6:15-17]

From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. 16On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords.

Revelation 19:15-16

What an amazing foreshadowing of the coming Day of the LORD! May we not be surprised like those in darkness, but as we begin to see all these things take place, may we lift up our heads for our redemption is near!


Types and Shadows — The Tabernacle

Now the point in what we are saying is this: we have such a high priest, one who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, a minister in the holy places, in the true tabernacle that the Lord set up, not man.

Hebrews 8:1-2

That which is visible is temporal, only a shadow of the true substance of reality, which is invisible and eternal — yet presently hidden from our view behind the veil of the spiritual realm. We walk by faith and not by sight, knowing that we yearn for a far better country — which is our heavenly home.

Our forever dwelling place.

But we, as God’s children, journey through a world that is not our home as we await our very great reward. Until that Day — the Day of the LORD — we must trust in what the Scriptures reveal to us about the heavenly realm.

God has revealed through His servants the prophets to His beloved people a gracious glimpse behind the curtain into the unseen realm. Sometimes the LORD uses visions and dreams to show His prophets a glimpse of heaven, and other times He uses patterns and copies of earth to teach us something about the true nature of His heavenly abode.

The tabernacle/temple motif is one that is interwoven through the entire scope of redemptive history. From Eden to Sinai to the Temple to the cross of Christ to His Return and His Millennium Kingdom, the climax of the gospel story will be the day when ultimately the LORD will say …

I will make a covenant of peace with them. It shall be an everlasting covenant with them. And I will set them in their land and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in their midst forevermore.27My dwelling place shall be with them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

Ezekiel 37:26-27

Nothing will be truly right in this age or the next until God is on His throne in the midst of His people — dwelling with us on earth as it is in heaven. Of Course the Lord Jesus Christ is the supreme and express revelation of God in the likeness of man, as the Word became flesh and tabernacled among us, full of glory, grace and truth. Jesus is the Way, the Truth and the Life. He is Immanuel — God with us.

In Hebrew the word for tabernacle is מִשְׁכָּן (mishkan)– which means dwelling, tent, habitation. In Greek the primary word use for tabernacle is σκηνή (skene). The ultimate purpose of the tabernacle is to provide an earthly representation of a heavenly reality so that sinful man can learn how to approach the Holy One in sacred space.

The tabernacle is all about approaching God on His terms, not our own, and also about acknowledging that we are helpless and hopeless without One mediating for us to provide access to the Father. And the tabernacle of God — an early tent of meeting — provides one of the most significant prophetic patterns in all of Scripture.

This one topic will be difficult to exhaust in and of itself, but for now I would like to share two general observations that should help set the stage and lay the foundation for this study.

The HEAVENLY LIGHT Casts Earthly Shadows

But as it is, they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for he has prepared for them a city.

Hebrews 11:16

The Scriptures are clear that the LORD dwells in the highest heavens (Psalm 115:16), which are His heavenly tabernacle.

It is he who sits above the circle of the earth,

and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers;

who stretches out the heavens like a curtain,

and spreads them like a tent to dwell in;

Isaiah 40:22

Within this heavenly canopy there is a radiant city — The New Jerusalem — that God has prepared and will bring down with Him when He returns to dwell on earth with His people. This city is the true template for our future home with God.

And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband … And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God, 11having the glory of God, its radiance like a most rare jewel, like a jasper, clear as crystal.

Revelation 21:2, 10-11

Fixed in the center of this heavenly city is God’s true temple — the heavenly tabernacle. Once again, this is the true tabernacle that the LORD set up, not man.

The LORD is in his holy temple; the LORD’s throne is in heaven; his eyes see, his eyelids test the children of man.

Psalm 11:4

And this heavenly tabernacle is the blueprint that the LORD used to show Moses and David and Solomon how to construct a copy on earth. The earthly was patterned after the heavenly [see Exodus 25:40]

And in this holy temple in heaven there is an outer court with the bronze altar and the bronze laver. There is a holy place with the golden lamp stand and the table of showbread, along with the golden altar of incense. And then there is a veil of separation that covers the Most Holy Place — the Holy of Holies — that contains the cherub-covered ark of the covenant along with the mercy seat.

The mercy seat is the throne of the Most High God. The inner sanctuary of the tabernacle is patterned after God’s heavenly throne room, as it defines the sacred space on earth for the manifest glory and presence of God in the midst of His people.

The Way, Truth and Life

Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the holy places by the blood of Jesus, 20by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, 21and since we have a great priest over the house of God, 22let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.

Hebrews 10:19-22

There are three distinct entrances to the tent of meeting and each corresponds to different levels of our relationship to God and of His provision for us. The first threshold is the door to the outer court. Everyone outside the court is separated from God and His sacred space. Yet once a sinner, separated from God, enters the door to the tent of meeting, he has come the only way possible to God.

Jesus is the way, the truth and the life and no one may come to the Father except through Him. This is a direct reference to the layout of the tabernacle. Let’s take a closer look.


Once a man entered the first door to the tabernacle he would immediately be brought before the bronze altar where an atoning sacrifice would be made for him. A sinner is not able to approach the Holy One without first confessing sin and seeking forgiveness and cleansing.

That is why the cross of Christ is the only way that man may come to God. If a sinner is to be reconciled to God, it will only be through the death of the Son. The bronze altar is the shadow of the cross, as Jesus became sin for us and laid His life down as the lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world. Christ serves as the high priest as well, who is our intercessor and mediator between God and man.

Once atonement has been made, the sinner may then wash in the bronze basin, which is a symbol of the cleansing power of the cross, as the blood of Christ purifies our hearts and provides a clean conscience to approach the Lord in worship.


The next door was the entrance to the holy place — which is the next level of our relationship with God. As a sinner has received mercy and a purified heart, he then is able to approach the LORD with a pure conscience to worship Him in Spirit and in truth!

And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. 

John 1:14

The holy place contains the golden lampstand — the menorah — which signifies the light of Christ that shines in the darkness and is the light of men. When we see Christ for who He is in the light, then we also see ourselves as we truly are. It is God’s word that is a lamp unto our feet and light unto our path.

Then there is the table of shewbread, which is a shadow of Jesus as the eternal bread from heaven who came to offer His own body for us. He is the bread of life, and we enter through the veil that is His flesh, which was torn for us. The shewbread also is a symbol of God’s personal invitation to come and dine with Him and abide with Him in fellowship.

Then there is the golden altar of incense, which always signifies the prayers of God’s people — representing deep communion with God. Prayer is in many ways the personification of worship, as we approach the God of the universe in humble adoration, in awe that He would desire relationship with us.


There is a veil in the tabernacle embroidered with cherubim — guardian angels — which covers the Most Holy Place. In this inner sanctuary, the ark of the covenant represents the LORD’s footstool and the mercy seat His throne. This is the throne room of God, containing His manifest presence and shekinah glory. Any man who approached the LORD casually or profanely would immediately be consumed by the fire of His glory. No man can look upon the face of God and live.

And yet, Jesus is the life. He is eternal life, and He offers eternal life to all who believe. Jesus is the resurrection and the life, and through Him, we too will be raised in glory and be given immortal bodies. We are able to enter the Holy of holies because through the work of Jesus, the veil was torn and believers have gained access to the throne of God’s grace before His mercy seat.

We will dwell with God forever! He is our God and we are His people! Jesus has made the way to the Father, who from everlasting to everlasting is our God.

So I have looked upon you in the sanctuary,
beholding your power and glory.
3Because your steadfast love is better than life,
my lips will praise you.
4So I will bless you as long as I live;
in your name I will lift up my hands.

Psalm 63:2-4

Types and Shadows — The Plagues of Egypt

So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was pitch darkness in all the land of Egypt three days. They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, but all the people of Israel had light where they lived. 

Exodus 10:22-23

One of the greatest mistakes many people make is trying to study the book of the Revelation of the Jesus Christ without being well read and rooted in the Old Testament. Every image, symbol, pattern and event in Revelation already has been established for us in the Scriptures. This is the key to understanding the prophetic word.

When it comes to understanding the end-times events described in the book of Revelation, one of the first places to begin is the Exodus. The parallels are astonishing. Let me show you what I mean.

The Primary Players on the Stage

For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, “For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I might show my power in you, and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”

Romans 9:17

The Exodus account is filled with prophetic typology, starting with the main characters at the heart of the story. Notice the obvious similarities to the players who will be involved during the great tribulation.

Pharaoh is a clear type of the Beast, or antichrist

Pharaoh was an evil pagan king over a Middle Eastern empire but also with world-wide influence. He was a defiant tyrant and cruel master over God’s people. The Egyptians historically recognized their Pharaohs as a one of the “gods,” which is precisely what the end-times ruler, the Beast, will claim to be.

Moses and Aaron represent the two witnesses from Revelation 11

We like to give Moses all the credit as the deliverer of Israel, but we often forget that his brother Aaron was right there with him the entire time. Actually, Aaron was the main one doing the talking on behalf of both the LORD and Moses when confronting Pharaoh. God’s testimony is always established upon the testimony of two or three witnesses. Furthermore, Moses was given supernatural powers by God to perform signs and wonders, as will the two witnesses during the great tribulation.

The Egyptian magicians are a shadow of the false prophet(s)

Just as the false prophet will exercise the authority of the Beast in the last days, Jannes and Jambres acted on behalf of Pharaoh. These magicians were able to reproduce some of the signs of Moses using their occult arts, just like the false prophet will come working great signs and wonders to deceive the whole earth. Just like the Egyptian magicians contested with Moses and Aaron, the false prophet will contest with the two witnesses during the great tribulation. This will be a supernatural showdown.

The Egyptians represent the Wicked Inhabitants of the Earth under the system of the Beast

Just as ancient Egyptians submitted and worshipped Pharaoh and the gods of Egypt, so shall it be during the great tribulation. Those who are deceived will worship the dragon (Satan) and the Beast.

The Israelites represent God’s people

God’s people Israel were enslaved and oppressed in Pharaoh’s kingdom, as the saints and Jews will be persecuted under the Beast kingdom. Eventually Pharaoh pursued Israel with the intent of total annihilation, and the Beast will attempt to kill all Jews and Christians in the great tribulation.

The LORD God Himself is the primary player involved

Yahweh is the One who ultimately brings judgment upon Pharaoh and the gods of Egypt and also redeemed His people in power and great glory. So shall the Lord Jesus return in power and glory to destroy the Beast in the end and at the same time save His people.

God’s Wrath is Poured out in Judgment

The LORD sent 10 devastating plagues upon Pharaoh and the land of Egypt, directly pouring out his wrath on the earth. In the very same manner that Egypt was the target of God’s wrath, the Beast Kingdom will be the target of God’s wrath during the great tribulation. Of course the bowl and trumpet judgments described during the great tribulation will be on a much broader scale, but the plagues of Egypt provide the necessary context to understand God’s wrath in the last days.

Many of the plagues correspond directly to the trumpet and bowl judgments of Revelation.

  • Plague #1: Blood — Just as Moses turned the waters of the Nile to blood, God will repeat this plague on a greater scale during the great tribulation. The 2nd Trumpet (Rev. 8:8-9) the 2nd Bowl (Rev. 16:3-6) along with the powers of the two witnesses (Rev. 11) include this sign. [Note — I do believe Moses himself will be one of the two witnesses.]
  • Plague #2: Frogs — The 6th Bowl judgment (Rev. 16:13-14) refers to the three “frogs” coming out of the mouths of the dragon, beast and false prophet, which is a direct appeal to the foreshadowing plague in Egypt. These frogs are “unclean spirits” going out to deceive the kings of the earth.
  • Plague #5: Pestilence — Not only does the 4th Seal provide the general overview of pestilence and death (Rev. 6:8), but also the two witnesses are given the power “to strike the earth with every kind of plague, as often as they desire” [Revelation 11:6].
  • Plague #6: Boils — The 1st Bowl judgment corresponds to this plague, as “harmful and painful sores came upon the people who bore the mark of the beast and worshiped its image” (Rev. 16:2).
  • Plague #7: Hail and Fire — Hail and fire are two of the most prominent signs of God’s judgment during the great tribulation. The 1st Trumpet judgment is described as “hail and fire, mixed with blood, and these were thrown upon the earth” (Rev. 8:6-7). Furthermore, the language used between Exodus and Revelation is nearly identical.
    • So there was hail, and fire flashing continually in the midst of the hail, very severe, such as had not been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.” [Exodus 9:24]
    • 7th Trumpet — “Then God’s temple in heaven was opened, and the ark of his covenant was seen within his temple. There were flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, an earthquake, and heavy hail.” [Revelation 11:19]
    • 7th Bowl — “And every island fled away, and no mountains were to be found. 21And great hailstones, about one hundred pounds each, fell from heaven on people; and they cursed God for the plague of the hail, because the plague was so severe.” [Revelation 16:20-21]
  • Plague #8: Locusts — Not only does the prophet Joel describe the devastating locusts associated with the last days, but also the 5th Trumpet judgment mentions the demonic locust army coming up out of the abyss to torment those who have not been sealed by God. (Revelation 9:3-4)
  • Plague #9: Darkness — All of Egypt was cast into darkness for three days (except the land of Goshen!), which corresponds directly to the 5th Bowl judgment on the Beast. “Its kingdom was plunged into darkness. People gnawed their tongues in anguish and cursed the God of heaven for their pain and sores. They did not repent of their deeds.” [Revelation 16:10-11]
  • Plague #10: Death of the Firstborn — Just as the final and most severe plague was the death of all the firstborn in Egypt, the final judgment of God upon the earth will be death to the Beast and all who are aligned with him. [see Revelation 19:20-21]

God’s People were not Removed from Egypt but were Protected from His Wrath

Perhaps the most telling typology of all when studying the plagues of Egypt is the fact that God was able to directly administer His wrath and judgment on Pharaoh and the land of Egypt, while at the same time protecting and preserving Israel from His wrath. This one example is enough to encourage all of God’s people that He is able to protect the godly from suffering the direct effects of His anger, but you may be surprised to discover that the Scriptures are full of other examples, including the book of Revelation.

Of course the righteous are not destined for wrath, but that doesn’t mean that the righteous must be removed from the earth in order to be protected from God’s wrath. It simply means that when the judgments begin, God is very capable of specifically targeting those under His wrath, while at the same time sheltering His people.

This is precisely what we see during the plagues in Egypt. God makes a clear distinction between His people and those under His wrath. Notice how all the plagues affected the land of “Egypt,” while the land of Goshen was spared.

But on that day I will set apart the land of Goshen, where my people dwell, so that no swarms of flies shall be there, that you may know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth. Thus I will put a division between my people and your people. Tomorrow this sign shall happen.

Exodus 8:22-23

Behold, the hand of the LORD will fall with a very severe plague upon your livestock that are in the field, the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herds, and the flocks. But the LORD will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, so that nothing of all that belongs to the people of Israel shall die.

Exodus 9:3-4

Only in the land of Goshen, where the people of Israel were, was there no hail.

Exodus 9:26

So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was pitch darkness in all the land of Egypt three days. They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, but all the people of Israel had light where they lived. 

Exodus 10:22-23

And of course, the final plague did not take the life of the firstborn in Israel because they obeyed the LORD’s command to cover their doorways with the blood of the lamb so that the angel of death would passover them. They were saved by faith from God’s wrath.

So as we can see, God is able to pour out direct wrath without destroying His own people in the process. And when we look at the book of Revelation, guess what we discover? THE VERY SAME THING! God makes a distinction between the righteous and the wicked.

  • During the 5th Trumpet, the demon locusts are allowed to harm “only those people who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads” [Rev. 9:4].
  • During the 1st Bowl Judgment, painful sores came upon only those who had received the mark of the beast and who worship it. [Rev. 16:2]
  • During the 4th Bowl Judgment, the sun only scorches those who curse God and refuse to repent. [Rev. 16:8-9]
  • During the 5th Bowl Judgment, only the kingdom of the Beast is plunged into darkness. [Rev. 16:10-11]
  • During the 6th Bowl Judgment, only the wicked kings of the earth are deceived and gather for battle against Jesus. [Rev. 16:12-16]
  • During the 7th Bowl Judgment, Jesus comes in glory to pour our wrath upon the Beast and his armies in flaming fire.

Many believers refuse to accept the fact that the saints will remain on the earth through all the judgments of God during the great tribulation because they misunderstand what it means for God’s people not to suffer His wrath. They believe that if God’s wrath is being poured out on the wicked inhabitants of the earth, then believers can’t still be on the earth at the same time, but the Exodus account demonstrates clearly that this is not the case at all. God doesn’t remove us from the earth, but He does supernaturally shelter and save us from His wrath.

Behold, I am coming like a thief! Blessed is the one who stays awake, keeping his garments on, that he may not go about naked and be seen exposed!

Revelation 16:15


Types and Shadows — Sodom and Gomorrah

But on the day when Lot went out from Sodom, fire and sulfur rained from heaven and destroyed them all — so will it be on the day when the Son of Man is revealed.

Luke 17:29-30

The Lord Jesus often used symbols, types and shadows to teach us lessons about prophetic realities to come. In His famous discourse on the end of the age, Jesus draws our attention to two primary allusions from the Old Testament.

  1. The judgment of the ungodly by flood in Noah’s day
  2. The judgment of the wicked by fire in Lot’s day

If the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah give us any indication about the Day of the LORD when Christ is revealed from heaven, then it is certainly worthy of deeper study.

Storing Up Wrath

Then the LORD said, “Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great and their sin is very grave, I will go down to see whether they have done altogether according to the outcry that has come to me. And if not, I will know.”

Genesis 18:20-21

To avoid conflict, Abram and his nephew, Lot, had separated their wealth and settled in opposite directions. While Abram chose the land of Canaan, Lot chose the fertile plain on the eastern side of the Salt Sea and settled in Sodom. In that day, the cities of the plain were lush with fresh water and rich vegetation, which obviously appealed to Lot.

And Lot lifted up his eyes and saw that the Jordan Valley was well watered everywhere like the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt, in the direction of Zoar. (This was before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah.)

Genesis 13:10

There was only one problem. The people in these cities were extraordinarily godless, for “the men of Sodom were wicked, great sinners against the LORD” [Genesis 13:13]. The depravity of these people was manifest most prominently in their extreme sexual degradation — namely the defiling of their bodies with the perverse practice of homosexuality.

We discover some time later (Genesis 18-19) that the LORD could bear the sin of Sodom no more. God had waited patiently, giving the people of Sodom and Gomorrah a chance to repent. Instead, they only persisted in sin and continued to store up for themselves more and more wrath for their coming judgment.

God’s wrath is described in the Scriptures in several different ways. In the Hebrew, the words most commonly translated for wrath are חֵמָה (chemah) or עֶבְרָה (ebrah), which suggest an overflowing fury that has been building over time.

In the Greek New Testament, there is one distinct word translated “wrath” that is unique from all the others. It is the word ὀργή (orgé), which again refers to the settled and righteous indignation of God toward the wicked. Paul uses this word in his epistle to the Romans.

But because of your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath when God’s righteous judgment will be revealed.

Romans 2:5

Notice Paul refers to “the day of wrath.” God’s wrath (orgé) is always associated with the Day of the LORD and the coming of Jesus Christ to judge the ungodly. It is a distinct kind of wrath. It is a settled wrath that God has allowed to build over time as He withholds judgment. It is His final wrath and outpouring of anger that is almost always expressed by an all-consuming fire.

The point is that God’s wrath — His orgé — is not some capricious, erratic impulse — likened to a quick-tempered outburst of anger — but rather it is the gradual culmination of God’s long-suffering with sin that finally builds and boils over into the complete outpouring of His anger.

The LORD gave Sodom and Gomorrah more than enough time to repent and turn from their wicked ways, but in the end, His eyes could no longer look upon their sin. Jesus Christ is warning us with the very same message today. There is a day when God’s mercy and patience will cease, and His wrath will be poured out on the earth in flaming fire, just as it was upon Sodom and Gomorrah.

The Righteous are Not Appointed to Wrath

For God did not appoint us to wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ.

1 Thessalonians 5:9 — NKJV

Now that I have established the Biblical meaning of God’s wrath — especially in how it was foreshadowed in the fiery destruction Sodom — I need to clarify what the Bible means when it says that the righteous will not suffer the wrath of God. Much confusion and many elaborate eschatological views have emerged from a fundamental misunderstanding of this one verse — 1 Thessalonians 5:9.

The Apostle Paul plainly states that those who are sealed and secured in Christ Jesus can be 100% certain that they will not be consumed by the fire of God’s all-consuming wrath — namely His orgé. Notice that this is the exact Greek word that Paul uses in this passage, which is connected to a very unique type of God’s judgment and more specifically to the Day of the LORD.

So what does this verse mean?

#1 — We are Saved from the Fires of Eternal Hell

First, this means that all who have believed in Jesus Christ will not suffer the eternal wrath of God’s punishment in the fires of hell. Don’t forget that the wrath of God is most completely expressed in His all-consuming fire, which precisely characterizes hell.

Paul again says in Romans, “God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Since, therefore, we have now been justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God [Romans 5:8-9].

Notice again that this passage in Romans 5 uses the Greek word orgé when speaking of our being saved from God’s wrath. So when Paul says that the righteous are not destined for wrath, he primarily means that we are not destined for eternal hell.

We are saved from hell! Saved from the second death! AMEN!

Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death—the lake of fire. 15And if anyone was found whose name was not written in the Book of Life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.

Revelation 20:14-15

#2 — We are Saved from God’s Direct Wrath on Earth

When we study the Bible, we discover that God is very precise and specific in His ability to pour out wrath on the wicked, while at the same time preserving and protecting the righteous. There are numerous examples of God directly judging the ungodly and wicked in wrath, while at the same time rescuing the righteous. Here are some of the most obvious.

  1. Noah saved through the flood
  2. Israelites protected through the plagues in Egypt
  3. Korah’s rebellion in Numbers 16
  4. Joshua protected from the hailstones in Joshua 10
  5. Sealed remnant preserved during Babylonian invasion in Ezekiel 9

And of course, the most obvious example is the one we are studying here, which is Lot being rescued out of Sodom just prior to its destruction. Once again, the timing is telling, especially when we understand that Lot’s rescue from Sodom is a foreshadowing of the return of Christ and the Day of the LORD.

If by turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah to ashes he condemned them to extinction, making them an example of what is going to happen to the ungodly7and if he rescued righteous Lot, greatly distressed by the sensual conduct of the wicked 8 (for as that righteous man lived among them day after day, he was tormenting his righteous soul over their lawless deeds that he saw and heard); 9then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment.

2 Peter 2:6-9

God’s people always have endured suffering, persecution, and tribulation, and the last generation will be no different. The righteous will go through the great tribulation, but believers will not be the objects of God’s wrath. Not only is God able to rescue us from trials if He so chooses, He also is able to keep us and protect us from suffering His wrath.

#3 — We are Saved from the Day of Wrath

But on the day when Lot went out from Sodom, fire and sulfur rained from heaven and destroyed them all — so will it be on the day when the Son of Man is revealed.

Luke 17:29-30

Here we discover a valuable insight from the Lord Jesus that cannot be overlooked. Notice how Jesus says that God destroyed Sodom on the very same day He rescued Lot out of the city, and then He tells us that it will be exactly the same on the Day when the Son of Man is revealed.

If we are to take the word of the LORD at face value, then we can draw the following conclusion. In the same way Lot was saved and removed from Sodom the very same day that God poured out His wrath in fire and brimstone, then the righteous will be removed and delivered from the earth on the very same day the Son of Man is revealed in flaming fire.

This is precisely why Paul encourages us “to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, Jesus who delivers us from the wrath to come” [1 Thessalonians 1:10].

Furthermore, just as the LORD sent His two angels into the city to literally snatch Lot and his family away to safety just prior to the outpouring of His wrath, so the Scriptures affirm that God will send out His angels across the earth to gather the righteous on the very same day He comes to judge the earth with fire.

And then they will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory.27And then he will send out the angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven.

Mark 13:26-27

So the rapture of the church occurs on the day the Son of Man is revealed from heaven in flaming fire. The rapture of the church is at the same time as the resurrection of the dead and the return of Jesus. It is on this day — the Day of the LORD — when Jesus will pour out the totality of His wrath in flaming fire.

Jesus affirms that His final wrath — orgé — will come when the Son of Man is “revealed.” There is only one revelation of Jesus Christ. That is why it is called “the” revelation of Jesus Christ. It is singular. He is only revealed from heaven once — on the Day of the LORD.

And another angel, a third, followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand, 10he also will drink the wine of God’s wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and he will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb.

Revelation 14:9-10

And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, were following him on white horses. 15From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. 16On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords

Revelation 19:14-16

So when the Scriptures speak of God’s people being delivered from the wrath to come, ultimately it is speaking about God’s wrath poured out on the ungodly when Jesus comes.

The words of Paul confirm this once again.

To grant relief to you who are afflicted as well as to us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels 8in flaming fire, inflicting vengeance on those who do not know God and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. 9They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might, 10when he comes on that day to be glorified in his saints, and to be marveled at among all who have believed, because our testimony to you was believed … And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth and bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming.

2 Thessalonians 1:7-10, 2:8

Types and Shadows — Trumpets

For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the voice of an archangel, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first.

1 Thessalonians 4:16

Today at sundown [September 18, 2020] designates the new year on the Jewish civic calendar. This day is called Rosh Hashanah and initiates the two-day Feast of Trumpets.

The Feast of Trumpets is one of the seven appointed Feasts of the LORD, given to the people of Israel to observe faithfully each year as holy convocations [see Leviticus 23]. The Feast of Trumpets is called Yom Teruah — the Day of Shouting — and traditionally is known as the hidden day because it is the only feast day that must be determined by the observation of the new moon.

The Lord Jesus makes a direct reference to this “hidden” day by using a common idiom, “But concerning that day or that hour, no one knows” [Mark 13:32]. As witnesses were told to observe the night sky for the first sighting of the new moon, it was difficult to know the precise day or the hour the moon would appear, and yet they still knew when the day was near. The whole nation would be waiting and watching in quiet expectation of this “sign” in heaven, but once the moon was sighted, the people were to make a collective shout of celebration and begin the trumpet blasts to announce the new year!

The Feast of Trumpets is the first of three fall feasts that constitute the most solemn time of year for the Jewish people. The high holy day of Israel — Yom Kippur — follows 10 days after the Feast of Trumpets. For a more detailed account about the Feast of Trumpets, feel free to read the following posts — PART 1 & PART 2.

The Theophany at Sinai

When the LORD instituted His appointed feasts and commanded Israel to observe them each year, He had a two-fold purpose. First, the LORD wanted His people to always remember and never forget how He redeemed Israel from Egypt with mighty signs and wonders and entered into covenant with them on the holy mountain — Sinai.

Second, the LORD also designed the appointed feasts to be prophetic “dress rehearsals” by establishing patterns and symbolic pictures that provide detailed depictions of the coming Messiah. Once you understand the prophetic significance of these appointed feasts, you will be astonished to discover how intentional and precise God’s word truly is.

When the LORD initiated the Feast of Trumpets with Israel in Leviticus 23, He commanded them to sound the trumpet blast on the first day of the month. The significance of the trumpet blast would have been quite fresh for this original audience because of what Moses and the Israelites had just witnessed at Mount Sinai.

This amazing encounter is worth another look.

On the morning of the third day there were thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud on the mountain and a very loud trumpet blast, so that all the people in the camp trembled17Then Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet God, and they took their stand at the foot of the mountain. 18Now Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke because the LORD had descended on it in fire. The smoke of it went up like the smoke of a kiln, and the whole mountain trembled greatly. 19And as the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him in thunder. 20The LORD came down on Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain. And the LORD called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up.

Exodus 19:16-20

The Feast of Trumpets is a dedicated day to remember the greatest manifestation of God ever witnessed on this earth. The trumpet blast was so intense that the people trembled and feared for their very lives in the presence of the God’s power and glory.

This was the day that the LORD God of Israel “came down” and showed Himself to His people. A day never to forget.

On the other hand, the theophany at Sinai serves as perhaps the most obvious allusion to the second coming of Jesus Christ. Just as the LORD gathered his people and came down on Mount Sinai in a cloud and with fire and lightening and trumpet blasts, so Jesus will return in like manner.

The language of the New Testament draws directly from this event to describe the return of Jesus from heaven to earth.

Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 30Then will appear in heaven the sign of the Son of Man, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

Matthew 24:29-31

For this we declare to you by a word from the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. 16For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the voice of an archangel, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. 17Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we will always be with the Lord.

1 Thessalonians 4:15-17

The Battle of Jericho

Although there are so many types and shadows I could draw from, I want to close with another fascinating episode involving the trumpet blast — Jericho.

Many of us grew up singing the old Sunday school song, “Joshua fought the battle of Jericho, Jericho, Jericho … and the walls came a tumbling down.” But the truth is that it was the LORD Himself who gave Israel the victory at the stronghold of Jericho, and He did so in a most unconventional way. Once again, what may have seemed like a bizarre command from God at the time was actually another prophetic picture God was painting in real time to point us to the final Day of the LORD!

Let’s take a closer look.

First we can’t overlook the encounter that Joshua has with the LORD just prior to the battle at Jericho. I am persuaded that this was an encounter with God the Son — the Lord Jesus — in a pre-incarnate manifestation [see Colossians 1:15-17].

When Joshua was by Jericho, he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, a man was standing before him with his drawn sword in his hand. And Joshua went to him and said to him, “Are you for us, or for our adversaries?” 14And he said, “No; but I am the commander of the army of the LORD. Now I have come.” And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and worshiped and said to him, “What does my lord say to his servant?” 15And the commander of the LORD’s army said to Joshua, “Take off your sandals from your feet, for the place where you are standing is holy.” And Joshua did so.

Joshua 5:13-15

The commander of the LORD’s army is standing with His sword drawn and is clearly God in human form because of Joshua’s response in fear and worship. Now listen to what the LORD told Joshua to do.

And the LORD said to Joshua, “See, I have given Jericho into your hand, with its king and mighty men of valor. 3You shall march around the city, all the men of war going around the city once. Thus shall you do for six days. 4Seven priests shall bear seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the ark. On the seventh day you shall march around the city seven times, and the priests shall blow the trumpets. 5And when they make a long blast with the ram’s horn, when you hear the sound of the trumpet, then all the people shall shout with a great shout, and the wall of the city will fall down flat, and the people shall go up, everyone straight before him.”

Joshua 6:2-5

Once again, the theatrics are intentional for prophetic purposes. The LORD was taking Israel through a dress rehearsal that in many ways will mirror the Day of the LORD. The fighting men were commanded to march around the city for 7 days with seven priests leading the way before the ark of the covenant, blowing 7 trumpets. Then they were to march around the city 7 times on the 7th day.

And then upon God’s command the priests were to make a long blast with their shofars and all the people were to give a great shout! Then earth would quake and the walls would crumble and their enemies would be given into their hands for total destruction.

The imagery is astoundingly prophetic. First of all, Joshua is one of the most obvious types of Christ in the Old Testament — even sharing the very same Hebrew name with Yeshua. The symbolism beyond that is simply amazing. Consider …

  • The repeated use of patterns with the number 7
  • The role of the ark of the covenant
  • The sounding of the last trumpet
  • The shouting of the people
  • The walls of the city falling down
  • The wrath of God poured out on His enemies
  • Israel conquering and inheriting the Promise Land

Both the 7th Trumpet and 7th Bowl from the book of Revelation draws directly from this event.

Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign forever and ever.” 16And the twenty-four elders who sit on their thrones before God fell on their faces and worshiped God,17saying,

“We give thanks to you, Lord God Almighty,
who is and who was,
for you have taken your great power
and begun to reign.
18The nations raged,
but your wrath came
and the time for the dead to be judged,
and for rewarding your servants, the prophets and saints,
and those who fear your name,
both small and great,
and for destroying the destroyers of the earth.”

19Then God’s temple in heaven was opened, and the ark of his covenant was seen within his temple. There were flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, an earthquake, and heavy hail.

Revelation 11:15-19

The seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air, and a loud voice came out of the temple, from the throne, saying, “It is done!” 18And there were flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, and a great earthquake such as there had never been since man was on the earth, so great was that earthquake. 19The great city was split into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell, and God remembered Babylon the great, to make her drain the cup of the wine of the fury of his wrath.

Revelation 16:17-19

Finally, we know that the Apostle Paul also makes a direct reference to the last trumpet on the last day when Jesus returns.

I tell you this, brothers: flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 51Behold! I tell you a mystery. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, 52in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we shall be changed. 53For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality.

1 Corinthians 15:50-53

So as we recognize and celebrate the Feast of Trumpets this weekend, may we first remember the mighty acts of God on behalf of His people, and may we also wait in hopeful expectation for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ when the final trumpet blast is sounded!


Types and Shadows — The Branch

There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse,

and a branch from his roots shall bear fruit.

And the Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him,

the Spirit of wisdom and understanding,

the Spirit of counsel and might,

the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD.

Isaiah 11:1-2

Every word, name, place, symbol, sign, and literary shadow in the Holy Bible is superintended by the divine author of Scripture — the Holy Spirit. As a result, the Bible is the most masterfully crafted supernatural revelation of God ever to grace mankind.

Today I will explore one of the most significant but often missed prophetic types in the Scriptures — the Branch. Like all types and shadows, once you begin to tug on this thread, it starts to unravel and reveal all kinds of wonderful and amazing discoveries that ultimately point us to our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.


Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, you and your friends who sit before you, for they are men who are a sign: behold, I will bring my servant the Branch.

Zechariah 3:8

The Old Testament prophets often depicted the coming Messiah in terms of a root, a shoot, or a branch. The word picture is self-evident in that a seed takes root and produces a shoot, which eventually grows into a mature tree with branches that produce fruit, starting the cycle all over again.

So which is it? Is the Messiah the root, or the shoot, or the Branch or the fruit?

Answer: Yes!

And He is even more. He also is the stump of Jesse.

The Stump of Jesse

The language of the Scriptures is precise. In order to grasp the full scope of the Branch, it is important to begin first with the stump of Jesse. A stump is what remains after a tree is cut down, and Jesse was the father of King David. So how is all of this connected to the Lord Jesus Christ?

Of all the capable sons of Jesse, the LORD God chose the youngest son David to be His anointed king [see 1 Samuel 16]. The LORD later established an unconditional covenant with King David promising to preserve his throne forever and to bring forth one of his descendants as the Messiah — the Anointed King of Israel [see 2 Samuel 7]. The Hope of Israel was in Messiah ben-David — “son of David.”

So Jesse is significant as the patriarch of the house of David, and David is signifiant as the patriarch of the promised Messiah and King of Israel.

But why a stump? What happened to the “tree” of Jesse that it became a stump?

It was cut down — in more than one way.

First, the tree of Jesse was cut down at the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., when the last of David’s sons — Zedekiah — was deposed and taken into Babylonian captivity, bringing an end to sovereign rule of the house of David in Judah [see 2 Kings 25]. For the fist time in nearly 400 years, Jerusalem was without a “son of David” on her throne.

So the royal house of David was “cut down” in effect but not lost forever. For God is faithful to keep all His promises, and therefore David’s house did return and resettle the land after 70 years of captivity and the LORD did preserve his heritage — keeping the hope of the Messiah ben-David alive.

Until … “the time had fully come, God sent His Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem those under the law, that we might receive our adoption as sons” [Galatians 4:4-5]. The time had fully come for God to take the stage and insert Himself into the drama of human history.

The promised son of David had arrived, and His name was to be called Yeshua (Joshua) — for He came to save His people. The angel Gabriel could not be any clearer that the righteous Branch — the son of David had arrived.

In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, 27to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. And the virgin’s name was Mary.28And he came to her and said, “Greetings, O favored one, the Lord is with you!” 29But she was greatly troubled at the saying, and tried to discern what sort of greeting this might be. 30And the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 31And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. 32He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, 33and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.

Luke 1:26-33

Jesus, the son of Mary, of the house of David, was and is the long-expected Messiah and Savior. “He is here! He has arrived!

That was the angelic announcement, and yet tragically the majority of His own people — the Jews — did not receive their King but rejected Him.

Even more tragic is the sobering reality that the religious leaders of Israel plotted and the nation at large participated in the public execution of the son of David — their Messiah!

In other words, Jesus is the stump of Jesse in that He was cut off for the sins of His own people and of the whole world! Perhaps no other chapter in Scripture communicates this tragedy like Isaiah 53.

“For he grew up before him like a young plant, and like a root out of dry ground … But he was pierced for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that brought us peace, and with his wounds we are healed …By oppression and judgment he was taken away; and as for his generation, who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living, stricken for the transgression of my people?” [Isaiah 53:2,5,8]

In spite of this tragedy, the cross of Christ was not a failure but rather God’s greatest triumph! Only God could have conquered through death, which is why Jesus could say, “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do” [Luke 23:34].

The Shoot of Jesse

There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots shall bear fruit.

Isaiah 11:1

If the stump of Jesse signifies Messiah being cut off, then the shoot of Jesse is the promise of resurrection life! And if the shoot is an allusion to resurrection life, then it’s branches and fruit become the promise of those who believe and receive the resurrection life of Jesus Christ!

What an intricate analogy all wrapped up in Isaiah 11:1!

But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 21For as by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead. 22For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive.

1 Corinthian 15:20-22

Jesus is the first born from among the dead, and He is True Vine that provides eternal life to all who remain in Him! He is the root and we are the branches — both Jews and Gentiles. We remain in Him by faith.

Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in me. 5I am the vine; you are the branches. Whoever abides in me and I in him, he it is that bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing.

John 15:4-5

The Root of Jesse

In that day the root of Jesse, who shall stand as a signal for the peoples— of him shall the nations inquire, and his resting place shall be glorious.

Isaiah 11:10

Jesus is the stump of Jesse, the shoot of Jesse, the True Vine, the first fruits from the dead, and the son of David.

But perhaps the most telling typological title is found in the “root of Jesse.” Everyone knows that the root precedes the shoot or the tree or branches. The root is preeminent and necessary for the tree to live.

So it is with Jesus Christ — the root of Jesse! He precedes Jesses, being very God. He is before all things as Creator. He is preeminent as the Head of the body.

The root of Jesse is an allusion to the deity of Jesus Christ, as the Scriptures so agree.

But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah,
who are too little to be among the clans of Judah,
from you shall come forth for me
one who is to be ruler in Israel,
whose coming forth is from of old,
from ancient days

Micah 5:2

Behold, I am coming soon, bringing my recompense with me, to repay each one for what he has done. 13I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.

Revelation 22:12-13

The Lord Jesus Christ precedes Jesse in every way just as He precedes all men, which is why He is the root, source, our point of origin, our Creator God. Let us not forget what Jesus said to the Jews, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am” [John 8:58].

So the promised Messiah who was to come from the lineage of Jesse and King David at the same time eternally existed before them both. He is before all things and the end of all things — the first and the last!

And one of the elders said to me, “Weep no more; behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals.”

Revelation 5:5

The Righteous Branch

Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. 6In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is the name by which he will be called: ‘The LORD is our righteousness.’

Jeremiah 25:5-6

So we have established that the Lord Jesus Christ is the perfect fulfillment of every type and shadow associated with the servant of the LORD — the Branch. He is the root, shoot and stump of Jesse. He is the True Vine bearing fruit unto eternal life. He is the son of David and King of Israel. And He is the Anointed One — the Messiah.

Jesus is the Tree of Life and all who partake of the fruit of His righteousnesses will live forever!

We are still awaiting the final fulfillment of the Branch, which will culminate when the Lord Jesus returns as King and establishes His throne in Zion to bless the whole world. Isaiah provides a beautiful description of this future Millennial Kingdom.

In that day the branch of the LORD shall be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land shall be the pride and honor of the survivors of Israel. 3And he who is left in Zion and remains in Jerusalem will be called holy, everyone who has been recorded for life in Jerusalem,4when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion and cleansed the bloodstains of Jerusalem from its midst by a spirit of judgment and by a spirit of burning. 5Then the LORD will create over the whole site of Mount Zion and over her assemblies a cloud by day, and smoke and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory there will be a canopy. 6There will be a booth for shade by day from the heat, and for a refuge and a shelter from the storm and rain.

Isaiah 4:2-6

We should not be surprised that of the very last words of the Lord Jesus, He reminds us of His true identity. He is both the root and the son of David.

“I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.”

Revelation 22:16


Types and Shadows — King Solomon

And people of all nations came to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and from all the kings of the earth, who had heard of his wisdom.

1 Kings 4:34

I feel as though God is leading me to venture deeper into the Old Testament to study the staggering integration of God’s word from beginning to end — particularly through the abundance of types, shadows, patterns, and prophecies. The longer I read and study God’s word, the more amazed I become at the unsearchable riches of His wisdom and truth — revealed to us through the Word — God the Son — Yeshua — our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.

Revelation 19:11

This simple verse reminds us of one core principle in Biblical interpretation — especially when studying patterns and typography. When the text or its interpretation aren’t clear, put Jesus right in the center of the context, and He is the answer. The Holy Spirit of God will always testify to the Son [John 16:13-15]. May Jesus forever be exalted!

King Solomon

Of all the places to start, why Solomon?

Why not Joshua or Moses or David or the Passover or the Exodus or the 7 Feasts of the LORD?

Well, for one reason I have never paid that much attention to Solomon as a type or shadow of Christ. Maybe it’s because David gets so much attention or because Solomon later led Israel into apostasy and idolatry and left the kingdom at the brink of civil war.

As I look a little closer, I have discovered some amazing parallels between King Solomon and the King of kings — the Lord Jesus Christ — some of which might surprise you.

Solomon — Son of David

“When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.”

2 Samuel:12-13

The most obvious place to start is with the title, “son of David,” which emphasizes progeny and offspring. This expression epitomizes the expectation of the Messiah. The Jews were all too familiar with God’s covenant promise to David that one of his descendants would be the Messiah. Jesus perfectly fits the profile as He was born of the house of David — truly a son in the royal lineage [see Luke 1:31-33].

David was Israel’s greatest king and a Mighty Warrior who subdued all his enemies bringing rest to Israel on all sides. Tragically, David’s life also was marked by war and great adversity. He is known for his great sin and failure, causing pain to his family, and also for his great repentance before God. David’s desire was to build the Temple for the Name of the LORD, but God had other purposes. His house would be built by David’s son and chosen successor of his throne.

David loved his sons, but of them all, the LORD chose only one to be the primary prototype of the Messiah.

And it just so happens to be Solomon — the son of David and King of Israel.

SOLOMON — King of Israel

And they made Solomon the son of David king the second time, and they anointed him as prince for the LORD, and Zadok as priest. Then Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king in place of David his father. And he prospered, and all Israel obeyed him24All the leaders and the mighty men, and also all the sons of King David, pledged their allegiance to King Solomon. 25And the LORD made Solomon very great in the sight of all Israel and bestowed on him such royal majesty as had not been on any king before him in Israel.

1 Chronicles 29:22-25

The Kingdom of Israel experienced it’s zenith under the early years of Solomon. David had brought peace and Solomon expanded the kingdom during the golden age of Israel. Notice that Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD.

Of course, upon His return Jesus will be the King of Israel, outshining Solomon’s kingdom in power and glory like holding a candle to the sun.

“When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne.”

Matthew 25:31

Solomon — Beloved Son of God

Behold, a son shall be born to you who shall be a man of rest. I will give him rest from all his surrounding enemies. For his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and quiet to Israel in his days. 10He shall build a house for my name. He shall be my son, and I will be his father, and I will establish his royal throne in Israel forever.

1 Chronicles 22:9-10

Solomon on several occasions was called God’s chosen and beloved son, much in the same way Abraham spoke of his son Isaac. As a matter of fact, when Solomon was born, Nathan the prophet told David what to call his son.

“Then David comforted his wife, Bathsheba, and went in to her and lay with her, and she bore a son, and he called his name Solomon. And the LORD loved him 25and sent a message by Nathan the prophet. So he called his name Jedidiah, because of the LORD.”

2 Samuel 12:24-25

Jedidiah means beloved of the LORD.

Of course, Jesus is the Beloved Son of God, loved of the Father before the foundation of the world.

“Father, I desire that they also, whom you have given me, may be with me where I am, to see my glory that you have given me because you loved me before the foundation of the world.”

John 17:24

Solomon — Prince of Peace

“Behold, a son shall be born to you who shall be a man of rest. I will give him rest from all his surrounding enemies. For his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and quiet to Israel in his days.

1 Chronicles 22:9

The prophet Isaiah calls the Messiah the “Prince of Peace” [Isaiah 9:6-7], as the government will rest upon His shoulders. Solomon obviously is a prototype of Jesus Messiah, as He ruled Israel during the time of unprecedented peace and prosperity. Israel expanded its borders and governed more territory under Solomon than any other time in history.

Solomon’s name literally means peaceful, which again points us Jesus Christ and His coming kingdom. Solomon may have experienced peace on all sides during His reign, but the Kingdom of God under Jesus will experience global peace during the Millennium.

Solomon — The All Wise One

Give your servant therefore an understanding mind to govern your people, that I may discern between good and evil, for who is able to govern this your great people?”

It pleased the Lord that Solomon had asked this. 11And God said to him, “Because you have asked this, and have not asked for yourself long life or riches or the life of your enemies, but have asked for yourself understanding to discern what is right, 12behold, I now do according to your word. Behold, I give you a wise and discerning mind, so that none like you has been before you and none like you shall arise after you.

1 Kings 3:9-12

Of course it is difficult to study Solomon without mentioning his supernatural wisdom to rule God’s people with justice. Only Jesus Himself can declare to be superior to Solomon in wisdom and understanding.

“The queen of the South will rise up at the judgment with the men of this generation and condemn them, for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and behold, something greater than Solomon is here.

Luke 11:31

Solomon — The Envy of Nations

Solomon not only expanded the territory of his kingdom and experienced unprecedented peace, but also Israel was the envy of the nations. All the surrounding nations paid tribute to Solomon.

“Judah and Israel were as many as the sand by the sea. They ate and drank and were happy. Solomon ruled over all the kingdoms from the Euphrates to the land of the Philistines and to the border of Egypt. They brought tribute and served Solomon all the days of his life.”

1 Kings 4:20-21

Solomon himself prophetically affirms his own kingdom as a foreshadow of the coming Kingdom. He wrote this Messianic Psalm during His reign.

In his days may the righteous flourish, and peace abound, till the moon be no more!

8May he have dominion from sea to sea,
and from the River to the ends of the earth!
9May desert tribes bow down before him,
and his enemies lick the dust!
10May the kings of Tarshish and of the coastlands
render him tribute;
may the kings of Sheba and Seba
bring gifts!
11May all kings fall down before him,
all nations serve him!

Psalm 72:7-11

The Messiah in His glory will be the King of all kings and Lord of lords.

“And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine on it, because the glory of God illuminates the city, and the Lamb is its lamp. 24By its light the nations will walk, and into it the kings of the earth will bring their glory.”

Revelation 21:23-24

SOLOMON — The Bridegroom of the Virgin Bride

One of the most overlooked foreshadows in the life of Solomon is the portrayal of the marriage between the King and the virgin bride of Jerusalem. The prophets often used the powerful allusion of the marriage bond to signify the relationship between the LORD and His people.

God “marries” His people in the sense that He loves, cherishes, provides, protects, rejoices over and remains forever faithful to His bride — the church. The Messiah will consummate the marriage once He has put all things under His feet. It is interesting that the bride of Christ is also called the city of the great King — the city of Jerusalem.

You shall no more be termed Forsaken,
and your land shall no more be termed Desolate,
but you shall be called My Delight Is in Her,
and your land Married;
for the LORD delights in you,
and your land shall be married.
5For as a young man marries a young woman,
so shall your sons marry you,
and as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride,
so shall your God rejoice over you.

Isaiah 62:4-5

The Song of Solomon is a poetic prefigurement of this future marriage coronation.

Go out, O daughters of Zion,
and look upon King Solomon,
with the crown with which his mother crowned him
on the day of his wedding,
on the day of the gladness of his heart.

Song of Solomon — 8:11

And God uses this expression to the very end, as Christ fulfills all that has been written.

Then came one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues and spoke to me, saying, “Come, I will show you the Bride, the wife of the Lamb.” 10And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God, 11having the glory of God, its radiance like a most rare jewel …

Revelation 21:9-10


But now the LORD my God has given me rest on every side. There is neither adversary nor misfortune. 5And so I intend to build a house for the name of the LORD my God, as the LORD said to David my father, ‘Your son, whom I will set on your throne in your place, shall build the house for my name.

1 Kings 5:4-5

Historically only two Temples have been built in Jerusalem. The first temple was funded by David and built by Solomon and became of the wonders of the ancient world in splendor and glory. After being destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 B.C., a second temple was constructed under the commission of King Cyrus and carried out by Joshua and Zerubbabel. The second temple was quite inferior to Solomon’s and later was profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes in the 2nd Century B.C.

In the days of Jesus, Herod was in the process of expanding and beautifying the Temple, but the effort proved futile and fatal as the Roman legions burned the second Temple to the ground in 70 A.D.

The Scriptures also speak of a third Temple, that will be built just prior to the great tribulation and will be desecrated by the Beast and made desolate.

But did you know that the Scriptures also speak of a fourth Temple? The Millennial Temple of the LORD!

This is significant for this study because it demonstrates once again how Solomon is one of the premier types of Christ. What we discover is that the Lord Jesus Himself will rebuild the Temple in The New Jerusalem to inaugurate the 1,000 years of His kingdom.

The prophet Zechariah provides the foundational text for this amazing prophecy.

And say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD of hosts, “Behold, the man whose name is the Branch: for he shall branch out from his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD. 13It is he who shall build the temple of the LORD and shall bear royal honor, and shall sit and rule on his throne. And there shall be a priest on his throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.”’

Zechariah 6:12-13

The Branch is a common Messianic title used by the prophets. Furthermore, the identify of the Branch is already revealed in this prophecy. There is only One possible candidate who could build the Temple of the LORD and then sit down on the throne as both PRIEST and KING. That of course is the King of kings and our Great High Priest — the Lord Jesus Christ.

The LORD says to my Lord:
“Sit at my right hand,
until I make your enemies your footstool.”

2The LORD sends forth from Zion
your mighty scepter.
Rule in the midst of your enemies

The LORD has sworn
and will not change his mind,
You are a priest forever
after the order of Melchizedek.
5The Lord is at your right hand;
he will shatter kings on the day of his wrath.

Psalm 110:1-2, 4-5

Not only will the Lord Jesus build His temple during the millennial kingdom, but also His throne will reside there and His glory will forever fill that place, which leads to my last prefigurement in the life of Solomon.


As soon as Solomon finished his prayer, fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices, and the glory of the LORD filled the temple2And the priests could not enter the house of the LORD, because the glory of the LORD filled the LORD’s house. 3When all the people of Israel saw the fire come down and the glory of the LORD on the temple, they bowed down with their faces to the ground on the pavement and worshiped and gave thanks to the LORD, saying, “For he is good, for his steadfast love endures forever.”

2 Chronicles 7:1-3

Other than the theophany on Mt. Sinai, there is no greater manifestation of the presence and glory of God than during Solomon’s dedication of the Temple. This imagery should immediately take us to the Millennial Temple that will be the eternal dwelling of God.

I fell facedown, 4and the glory of the LORD entered the temple through the gate facing east. 5Then the Spirit lifted me up and brought me into the inner court, and the glory of the LORD filled the temple.6While the man was standing beside me, I heard someone speaking to me from inside the temple, 7and He said to me, “Son of man, this is the place of My throne and the place for the soles of My feet, where I will dwell among the Israelites forever. The house of Israel will never again defile My holy name—neither they nor their kings—by their prostitution and by the funeral offeringsb for their kings at their deaths.

Ezekiel 43:3-7

Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more. 2And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Behold, the dwelling place of God is with man. He will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God.

Revelation 21:1-3

It shall come to pass in the latter days

that the mountain of the house of the LORD

shall be established as the highest of the mountains,

and it shall be lifted up above the hills;

and peoples shall flow to it,

2and many nations shall come, and say:

Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD,

to the house of the God of Jacob,

that he may teach us his ways

and that we may walk in his paths.”

For out of Zion shall go forth the law,

and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.

Micah 4:1-2

Stay tuned to discover my next subject in Types and Shadows …